Meaning of URL

URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator. It specifies the global address of web documents and web resources. The basic reason behind locating or identifying a resource on the web is access or communication. Interaction between web users and the Internet resources is possible, only if each resource on the Internet is identified in a standardized manner. A URL serves this purpose. Let’s look at the different parts that compose it and what purpose each of them serves.
The first part of the address is the protocol identifier. HTTP and FTP are examples of protocol identifiers, which indicate the protocol in use. More rightly known as the scheme, this part of the URL denotes how to connect to the web resource. It is not case-sensitive but the canonical form is lowercase.
The second part of a URL is the resource name that comprises the IP address or the domain name of the web resource. It denotes where to connect. The domain name may be followed by a port number which is separated by a colon. When specified, a connection to that port number is established. If the port is not specified, the browser connects to the default http port which is 80.
The domain name may be followed by a path when a particular resource such as a file or a page needs to be retrieved. This part of the URL specifies what to retrieve. It is case-sensitive. On servers based on Microsoft, it is not. A URL may consist of a fragment identifier which denotes a specific location on the page. If it is a part of the URL, the browser displays that specified part of the page.
A uniform resource locator is synonymous with uniform resource identifier that is abbreviated as URI. By definition, URI is a string of characters that is used to identify resources on the Internet. Either it is the uniform resource locator or a uniform resource name (URN).
Typically, HTTP is the first part of a URL. As you know, it is the protocol identifier. It is followed by a colon and two forward slashes after which comes the domain name of the resource to be located. URLs are commonly referred to as website addresses. To reach any particular website, you need to type its URL in the address bar of your browser, which then retrieves the desired page for you.
An internationalized resource identifier (IRI) is a type of URL that includes Unicode characters. It allows one to create URLs using one’s local alphabet. The domain name is known as an internationalized domain name (IDN). It is converted into punycode, wherein Unicode characters are represented as ASCII characters that DNS supports. When a user specifies a URL in the local alphabet, it is converted to Unicode, and characters that are not a part of the URL character set are converted to English letters using percent-encoding.
Tim Berners-Lee and the URI working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standardized the Uniform Resource Locator in 1994. The Domain Name System created in 1985 was combined with the file path syntax.
Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/meaning-of-url-what-does-url-stand-for.html

Open Source Software Examples

There are three major types of software – Programming Software, Systems Software and Application Software. Of the three, the latter two come in two broad classifications – open source and closed source. There are many different types of application software which are open source and most of us regularly download and use them on our PC/laptop, such as VLC. In this Buzzle article, we will take a look at some popular and highly recommended open source software examples for different types of operating systems.

An open source computer software is either a systems software or an application software that is available freely in the form of source codes and the users are permitted, under the software license, to study, modify and improve the software. The Open Source Initiative has set certain parameters to determine whether a software license renders the software open source or not. These parameters are very specific and are as laid down below. In order to be considered Open Source, a software must qualify on all of these parameters.

Parameter Elaboration
Free Redistribution The software license does not restrict anyone from selling or giving away the software as part of a software package which contains programs from various other sources. The license also should not require any royalty or fee for such sale or passing over of the software.
Source Code The program should essentially contain source code and the distribution should be permitted in source code as well as compiled form. If the source code is not provided free, the means of obtaining it should be well publicized and should not cost more than a reasonable charge, though the preferred mode of obtaining such code should be free downloading via the Internet. Deliberate obfuscation of source code is not permitted and outputs of processors and translators are against the rule.
Derived Works The software license must permit modifications to the source code and the distribution of such derived work must be allowed to be distributed under the same terms as the original software license.
Integrity of Author’s Source Code Distribution of source code in modified form can be restricted by the license only if the license necessitates distribution of patch files with the source code for modification of the program at the time of writing it. In such case, the license must be explicit in allowing distribution of software which is developed from modified source code and may require derived works to be known by a different name or version number from the original.
No Discrimination of Persons or Groups There should be no discrimination, whatsoever, by the license against any person or user group. What is made available to one must be made available to everyone else.
No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor There should be no restriction on the use of the software for any field of work. If it is free for business use, it must also be free for use in lab researches.
Distribution of License The rights to the program should apply to everyone, to whom the program is redistributed without any necessity for applying for additional license by such parties.
License Must Not be Specific to a Product The rights attached to the program must not be specific to the software of which it is a part. Even if the program is extracted from that particular software package and used elsewhere within the program’s license terms, the user of such an isolated program would have the same rights as he would have had on using the program along with the original software distribution.
License Must Not Restrict Other Software There should be no restriction on any other software that is distributed along with the licensed software. The other software may or may not be open sourced but that should not put any restrictions on their distribution on the same medium as the open source one.
License Must be Technology Neutral No part of the license should weigh upon any particular technology or interface style.

VLC, Mozilla Firefox and MySQL are prominent software examples which are open source. Linux and Ubuntu are prominent examples of open source operating systems. Let us browse through some examples for two major operating systems – Windows and Mac.

Popular Open Source Software for Windows
Firefox ~ web browsing
Miro ~ video player, bittorrent, pod casting
Pidgin ~ instant messaging
Miro Video Converter ~ convert any video to mp4 or theora
SkipScreen ~ skip unnecessary clicks and waiting time on media sharing sites such as zShare
Thunderbird ~ e-mail
RSSOwl ~ cross platform RSS client
Cabos ~ easy peer-to-peer file sharing
Gnucleus ~ Gnutella search and file sharing software
VLC ~ plays Quicktime, AVI, DIVX, OGG and many other video/audio formats
Media Player Classic ~ plays lots of media formats
Open Office ~ word processing and spreadsheet functions aka MS Office
AbiWord ~ word processing
Juice ~ great pod casting client
Handbrake ~ convert/rip DVD to MPEG-4 format, one of the best DVD ripping software
Audacity ~ sound recording software
Gipm ~ graphics editing aka Photoshop
Paint.net ~ similar to Gimp
Inkscape ~ application for vector graphics
Filezilla ~ FTP application
X-Chat2 ~ IRC client
PealZip ~ extracting and archiving functions
ZScreen ~ open source application for screen-capture functions
Launchy ~ open source program launcher that works on keystrokes
AutoHotkey ~ open source short-cut creator which enables you to create keyboard shortcuts for just about any task that is of repetitive nature
Notable Open Source Software for Mac
Mozilla Firefox ~ web browsing
Miro ~ video playing, bittorrent, pod casting
Audium ~ instant messaging
Miro Video Converter ~ convert any video to mp4 or theora
Vienna ~ RSS client
Mozilla Thunderbird ~ e-mail
SolarSeek ~ file sharing client
Q Emulator ~ running Windows on Mac
Perian ~ plugin allowing quicktime for playing additional media formats
VLC ~ plays Quicktime, AVI, DIVX, OGG and many other video/audio formats
iPodDisk ~ iPod ripping
Burn ~ CD/DVD burner
Vidalia ~ user anonymity on the web
Bean ~ word processor
KisMac ~ wireless scanning on Mac
Xee ~ fast image browsing and viewing
Scribus ~ DTP application
Cyberduck ~ great FTP program
Colloquy ~ IRC client
NVU ~ visual web designing and development software
Gipm ~ graphics editing aka Photoshop
Audacity ~ sound recording software
Camino ~ web browsing
OpenProj ~ open source project management application
jEdit ~ open source text editing software, especially useful for programmers
Stellarium ~ Open source 3D planetarium application
Most of these open source applications, as you can discern, are equally popular to Mac as well as Windows. The biggest advantages of open source computer software are their ease to penetrate the market without the companies offering them requiring to sweat over promoting them and providing a sense of empowerment and flexibility to users and developers. The greatest disadvantages are argued to be their being in a perennially developmental stage and the ignorance of system testing and documentation. This point of concern may be true in case of very small software projects but holds no water for larger, more successful projects which risk no such negligence and their software are well-defined and subject to rules regarding testing of modifications and documentation. Before downloading though, get thoroughly informed about free software download pros and cons to be on the safer side if you are downloading software from some obscure site.

We all have, sometime or the other, used and benefited from some of the best open source software available on the web. Most of you must be familiar with the aforementioned examples and know some of these to be the best things to have happened to web browsing, instant messaging, pod casting, media playing, photo editing and much more – the scopes are unlimited! Download these wicked open source applications and open yourself to more variety and computing convenience. Happy installing!
Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/open-source-software-examples.html

Causes and Effects of Urban Sprawl

Urbanization refers to the migration of the population from rural regions to towns and cities. Man has always moved to newer places in search of better opportunities and amenities. Hence, migration is not a new phenomenon. Studies report of a steep rise in urbanization that came about in the late 19th and early 20th century. This sudden increase in urbanization can be attributed to the Industrial Revolution, which provided better economic opportunities in the cities, owing to the newly set up factories and industries.

As the cities and towns reap most of the benefits of innovations in the fields of science and technology, urbanization still continues to take place in them. As a result of this, the cities and its suburbs spill over to the rural areas along their boundaries. This spread is termed as urban sprawl. In the following Buzzle article, we will study the causes, effects, and consequences of urban sprawl and what it signifies.

Causes

The following are the main causes of urban sprawl.
Cheaper land and housing costs in the suburbs as compared to urban centers has lured many to settle in these areas.
There has been an increase in public spending for the development of infrastructure like roads, water, and electricity in the suburbs than in existing urban centers, thus adding benefits to life in sprawls.
There has been an increase in commercial lending practices that favor suburban development.
Increase in family income of an average American has raised his standard of living. Owning a car and paying for gas to transit from the suburb to the city is affordable for many Americans.
Sprawls are characterized by low density populations and less traffic congestion. Therefore, even in the absence of any federal policies that would encourage growth of sprawls, these centers have proliferated due to the willingness of a growing number of people to live in sprawls, where they find life more calm and peaceful than in the cities.
Higher property and business taxes in the cities have pushed businesses to the suburbs where taxes are generally low.

Effects

The following are the main effects of urban sprawl.
Sprawls have been criticized for increasing public costs. Some view sprawls as a venue where public money is being spent on redundant infrastructure outside the urban areas at the cost of neglecting the infrastructure in the cities that is either not utilized or underutilized.
People living in urban sprawls commute to cities in their automobiles. This has resulted in heavier traffic on the roads, leading to traffic congestion, increase in air pollution, and automobile-related accidents.
Increasing dependence on automobiles has led the sprawl population to use their vehicles even for short distances. Such practices have, no doubt, led to an increase in obesity and hypertension in the population living in sprawls than those in the cities.
Sprawls have triggered concerns over environmental issues as well. Houses in sprawls are larger than those in urban centers. This is viewed, by some, as a waste of cultivable land and displacement of wildlife. Since large areas of land are covered with impervious material, such as concrete, there is lesser percolation of rainwater into the groundwater.
Sprawls are believed to cause disintegration in the social capital of America. Houses in the sprawls are more spacious than those in the city and usually come with large backyards―this set up tends to separate neighbors. Hence, social interactions among neighbors is lesser in these regions than in the cities.
People residing in sprawls depend heavily on automobiles to commute to the main city, thus, city planners are compelled to spend more money on building larger highways and parking spaces. This is considered as an additional burden on the state treasury because this reduces the area of taxable land.
Despite widespread anti-sprawl sentiments, urban sprawls have their own benefits. With a considerable portion of the population preferring to live in sprawls, houses have become more affordable in cities. Reduced housing costs in sprawls is believed to have provided minorities and recent immigrants better housing opportunities as well.

Urban sprawl is the later stage of urbanization and is an inevitable phenomenon. Just like every other process, urban sprawls have their own pros and cons. However, the negative effects of urban sprawls can be neutralized by monitoring their growth in a planned manner, such that they are not a liability, either to the society, economy, or the environment.

The Digital Divide

The digital divide is the gap in access to technology between individuals, businesses, households, and geographic areas due to socioeconomic status. This digital divide can be due to one household having less money than another and, therefore, not being able to buy all the new gadgets on the market that some other families may be able to afford. It can also be due to an area of the country or the world that doesn’t have the same access to the Internet as another.

In many countries, Internet is unreliable and that leaves the user without the same access to information and conversation tools as people in other parts of the world. There are also some countries that censor the Internet for civilians for political reasons, and this can lead to a further digital divide. When discussing different levels of access of the Internet between countries, this is actually called the global divide. The term “digital divide” first came into use in the 1990s’ and was first used to refer to the different levels of access to computers between different ethnic groups in the United States of America. By 1998, the National Telecommunications and Information Administration was using the term as a title of a survey. The quick launch of these terms into the public sphere draws attention to the fact that this is a huge problem in our country and the world. These different digital divides can have serious implications on people and cause gaps in earnings, education, and much more.

Gaps in Earnings

In a world and an economy that is becoming more global by the second, computer skills are a must have. It is difficult to find a job that does not require computer skills in today’s society. Whether requiring you to type, research, email, read, or perform more complicated tasks, almost everything revolves around computers and new software.

If you have not grown up with a computer and if you do not have access to a computer at home, you are at a serious disadvantage to someone who has been working with computers his or her whole life. No amount of computer training can make up for just being able to have access to a computer and learning how to use it naturally and intuitively. In this sense, it can be extremely difficult to climb the workplace ladder when you do not have the same skill set as someone else in the company. The digital divide, in this way, can cause a serious gap in earnings between someone who has a computer and someone who does not. Also, many companies are putting their job applications and postings online, so without a computer or access to the Internet, one cannot research or apply for high paying jobs.

Gaps in Education

Students and schools who have access to computers can learn more information in a few seconds than someone without a computer. Because of rapid Internet access, students are able to find whatever information they need in a very short amount of time. This not only changes the teaching atmosphere, but also further separates the haves and have-nots. When one student can find information at the speed of light and another cannot, the student without access to technology is starting at a lower level of information than the student with the access. There is nothing a teacher can do to level that playing field.

Sure, the same information is out there in books and other hard copy sources, but the time a student spends finding that information is valuable. When one student is afforded the opportunity to spend less time on an assignment because he or she has access to the Internet, it frees up time for other opportunities like work and socialization.

Intranet Vs. Internet

The age of information technology owes everything to the development of computer networking. It’s the linking up of computers on ever-widening scales, that has turned our long sought after dream of making the world’s knowledge freely accessible, into reality. If all computer networks are arranged in an ascending order of complexity and scaling, two types of networks will lie at extreme ends. One is of course the ‘Internet’ and the other, which may be functional in your company, is an ‘Intranet’.

Intranet Vs. Internet Comparison

Computer networking forms the fundamental basis of intranet and Internet. It enables the sharing of resources and information among a group of computers. The first operational computer network was created for the United States Department of Defense and was known as ‘Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET). Since then, networking technology and architecture evolved in complexity and sophistication, to provide us with the internet. The synergy of advanced network computing hardware and sophisticated networking software based on Internet protocols has made this possible. As you will see ahead, an intranet and the Internet are two widely separated points on the scale of networking complexity, which serve to provide the most efficient form of information and resource sharing.

Definition

Intranet is an internal private computer network or connection of one or more computer networks, whose use and access is restricted to an organization and its employees or members. These kinds of networks are used for ease of information sharing and communication in companies. In industries, based on the information technology, intranets are absolutely necessary, as their work involves a high degree of data sharing and collaboration among computer users. Such an intranet, mostly operates through a website, run by a local server, acting as a resource sharing medium. You could call it a scaled-down private Internet. Transfer of data over such a private website based network may be controlled using the Internet protocols like HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol), SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) and FTP (File Transfer Protocol). However, not all intranets use private websites. There may be organizations where intranets are meant for pure file sharing, with no private website or Internet protocol use required.

The very fact that you are accessing information through the Internet, demonstrates that you already have an idea about what the Internet or ‘International Network’ can do for you. Take small networks spread in a small region of your city, then integrate them with other such small networks to form local area networks (LANs). Then integrate all such local area networks to form a wide area network of computers. Next, integrate such wide area networks (WANs) into a national network. Subsequently, join all such national networks together. What you ultimately end up with, is the Internet! It is a single network that connects computers all over the world using Internet protocols, which make information sharing and routing possible. The main point of difference between intranet and Internet is the following. While intranet involves the networking of a few hundred computers, Internet is a network of more than billion computers spread worldwide! It uses an ever improving set of Internet protocols (HTTP, FTP, SMTP, etc.) to transfer data. Unlike the intranet, the Internet and the information sharing service called the ‘World Wide Web’, which we operate on, cannot function without these protocols.

Structure, Scale & Complexity

The structure of an intranet is similar in principle to the Internet. Both use a server-client structure and both networks transfer data using Internet protocols. However, they fundamentally differ due to the vast difference in networking scale and complexity.

With billions of computers sharing and transferring data amongst each other, the administration of the Internet is far more complex, as it is the mother of all computer networks. A large amount of networking and routing hardware is needed to connect all the computers worldwide. On the other hand, an intranet, being restricted to a few computers is easier to manage.

Server Control

One of the most fundamental points of difference is server control. An intranet is controlled by a single server, which can adequately handle all tasks. A single server or server cluster has absolute control over the entire network.

The Internet is operated by a linked set of billions of computer servers world wide. This is due to the sheer size of data that’s exchanged over the Internet, making it inevitable, that control centers be decentralized. It is the difference between the governing of a city and governing a nation. Decentralization is essential. Governed by a common architecture, servers spread world wide exchange data with client computers through the use of Internet protocols.

Uses

An intranet is built in an organization, to enable resource sharing and provide a rapid communication channel that efficiently connects team members and peers. Corporate intranets have restricted access controlled by user ids and passwords, which are not accessible to anybody on the outside. In some cases, external access may be granted through the use of Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) to let distant employees connect with the network. Intranets provide a limited set of services, which are required by the organization. Improvement in productivity, cost saving and rapid communication are some of the inherent advantages of an intranet.

The Internet and the intranet differ in their uses. Internet is a global network which has information sharing on a global level as its goal. Internet is more open in the sense, that everything shared here, is accessible to every person connected to it, all over the world. One of the major points of differentiation is the range of services offered. Internet offers all possible spectrum of services to its users, compared to the very restricted number of services offered by Intranets. From cloud computing, e-mail, FTP, world wide web, peer-to-peer data sharing to VoIP services and more, Internet caters to every global netizen’s needs.

The difference is primarily the scaling, complexity and manageability, while the fundamental principles and technologies underlying both networks remain the same.

Negative Effects of Internet on Children

Internet has proved to be one of the most innovative inventions for us. It has made its presence felt in every sphere of our life, be it economy, society, health care, spirituality, etc. Prominent among its benefits is the impact it has had on the education sector. Students can now gain access to innumerable research papers, apart from getting latest updates in the field of science and technology. But as they say, “With great power comes great responsibility”, Internet has created new challenges for the society and most threatening among these is the impact it has had on children. Internet addiction has been recognized as a disorder in many countries, and rehabilitation centers have been created to help people to get over it. The sad part of this whole phenomenon is that a large proportion of Internet addicts are youngsters, who are extremely vulnerable to its ill-effects. There are several advantages and disadvantages of Internet but in this article, we will focus on its negative effects.

Internet and Children

Internet Addiction Disorder
Although studies on this disorder are in preliminary stages, it has been established that children who spend most of their time on the Internet, show a peculiar kind of behavior which is marked by an urge to be on the Internet all the time, so much that the child may shun all activities and become immersed in the virtual world. Surveys conducted over the years have found that most people who suffer from Internet addiction disorder are young adults, who easily fall into the lure of exploring everything that is available on the Internet. In America alone, it has been estimated that around 10-15 million people are suffering from Internet addiction disorder, and this is increasing at the rate of 25% every year.

Reduced Physical Activity
There are a host of games that are available on the Internet and this has made most children to shun all outdoor activity. In the absence of physical activity, children can easily fall prey to a lot of lifestyle related diseases such as obesity, apart from failing to develop interpersonal skills. Apart from these factors, sitting continuously in front of a computer screen can seriously damage our eyes, and put a strain on our neck and shoulders. Children are in their developing years and these factors can create life-long problems for them.

Easy Access to Pornography
This is one of the greatest threats Internet poses to children. Internet has provided an easy medium to children to gain access to pornography and this can cause them to either become sexually-deviant or sexually-addictive. This phenomenon has also caused another problem, and that is the increase in prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in children. According to reports, one out of every four teenagers gets infected with a STD every year. The adult content that is present on the Internet promotes irresponsible sex and creates false notions in the minds of students.

Vulnerability to Cyber Crime
If you have been following news lately then you must know what we are referring to. Children have been lured by pedophiles posing as good Samaritans and have been physically abused and molested. Internet has also made it easy for unscrupulous elements to get in touch with children and this has led to an increase in the cases of kidnapping and identity thefts. About 60% young teens in the United States have admitted to responding to messages from strangers. This kind of behavior is extremely risky and has made children extremely vulnerable to become victims of cyber-crime.

The points mentioned above have posed new challenges to teachers and parents. There are demands from various quarters that there should be some sort of regulation to check this issue. However, we believe that instead of making Internet a taboo, we should educate children to use it for their benefit. It is advisable for parents to monitor how much time their children spend on the Internet, and if possible set a time-limit till which they would be allowed to use the Internet. Having the computer in the living-room instead of a child’s bedroom can also ensure censorship on what they are accessing on the Internet. It is also important that you talk to them about ‘the birds and the bees’ because if you do not talk to them, they will turn to their friends and Internet for answers which may not provide authentic information.

Although, this article is foucused on the negative effects of internet, it in no way means that we are undermining the importance of Internet in our lives. We have written this article for the Internet audience, and you are reading it through the Internet, which itself explains the positive side of Internet usage. It is for us to decide whether we use technology for the betterment of our lives or put it to unabated abuse. Children may not be mature enough to understand this, but we as parents, teachers and guardians need to ensure that we inculcate the right behavior in our children.

Software Developer Salary

With the growth of the information technology industry, the demand for talented and skilled software developers has increased to a great extent. The software industry has achieved tremendous progress in the US and in Asian countries like India, creating many job opportunities. As a result, the junior and senior level salaries of these professionals continue to show a strong upward trend.

Pay Range

The salary of software developers largely depends on their years of experience, place of work, educational qualifications, and skills. Though the average salary is quite high as compared to several other professions, the entry-level pay might be low in some regions. The median salary is around USD 72,000 per year according to job market experts. An experienced programmer can earn around USD 60,000 per year. The pay of those having an experience of less than two years can be in the range of USD 35,000 to USD 45,000 per year. Those having an experience of three to five years can earn between USD 45,000 to USD 70,000 per year. Those who have been in the industry for eight to ten years can make between USD 65,000 to USD 90,000 per year. Whereas the senior professionals can earn in the range of USD 100,000 to USD 175,000 or even more.

Job Description

Software developers do the job of understanding and interpreting technical documents to create software applications. They also update the current tool and ensure that it is working efficiently. Senior developers have to take up the responsibility of monitoring, supervising, and checking the work of their juniors. They have to take care of the needs and requirements of the users while preparing the design. Conducting training sessions for the users, to learn the software are also a part of their duties. They are also responsible for creating test plans and technical specifications. They often work in teams or groups to complete the assigned tasks in time and within budget.

Requirements

In order to become a software developer, you need to have at least a bachelor’s degree in information technology or computer science from a reputed university. Securing admission in such a college would require you to score well in subjects like math, physics, and English in high school. A master’s degree in computer science can be the ideal way of entering this field, as this is what top employers generally look for. Initially, you might have to work as a trainee for three to six months before they take you on as a full-time employee. Knowledge of the latest software and programming languages, and having the relevant certifications can be an added advantage while looking for jobs in top firms.

Waterfall Model in Software Engineering

The waterfall model is probably the oldest and the best-known development models. The role of this model in software engineering is as important as its role in software testing. It forms the basic design, using which, over the years, a number of other software process models have been developed and implemented.

Waterfall Model and Software Engineering

The waterfall model is so named because it employs a ‘top-to-down’ approach similar to the water falling from a height under the influence of gravity. The following is a brief explanation of the different phases in the waterfall model.

Phases
For developing a software for small or large project, the waterfall model suggests that you employ the phases given below, in a step-by-step manner.

First and foremost, you need to completely analyze the problem definition and all the various project requirements. This phase is commonly referred to as ‘Requirement Analysis’. Once you have thoroughly and exhaustively identified and understood all the project requirements, they are to be properly documented, after which you move onto the next phase, which is known as ‘System Design’. This involves analyzing and specifying the project’s hardware and software requirements, and their inter-relation. In this phase, the entire software aspect of the project is broken down into different logical modules or blocks which are identified and systematically documented. ‘System Implementation’ is the next phase which involves writing the software code and actually implementing the programming ideas and algorithms which have been decided upon in the previous phase. Once the coding and implementation phase has been completed, the development process moves on to testing. This is precisely what happens in the next phase which is known as ‘System Testing’. The code that has been written is subjected to a series of tests, to detect and determine whether there are any bugs, errors or software failures. Once all the repair work, i.e. correcting and re-writing every piece of erroneous or flawed code is completed, you then move to the next and last phase which is the ‘System Deployment and Maintenance’. As the name suggests, the last phase is nothing but handing over the completed project to the client or customer, and subsequently performing maintenance activities, if needed, on a periodic basis.

Advantages and Disadvantages
Let us now examine the pros and cons of the waterfall model in software engineering as well as in software testing.

Pros
It is the simplest software development model and also the easiest process to implement.
This model is simple to understand and therefore is implemented at various project management levels, in a number of different fields.
It employs an orthodox, yet systematic and effective method of project development and delivery.
Cons
Since it is not an iterative model, it has its fair share of shortcomings and drawbacks.
Being a strictly sequential model, jumping back and forth between two or more phases is not possible. The next phase can be reached only after the previous one has been completed.
Bugs and errors in the code cannot be discovered until and unless the testing phase is reached. This can lead to a lot of wastage of time and other precious resources.
This process model is not suitable for projects wherein the project requirements are dynamic or constantly changing.

What is OEM Software?

Designing a swimming pool with the help of a software is easy and it enables the user to customize the type of swimming pool desired. There are few software available in the market that provide the user with different tools to design a swimming pool.

Swimming Pool Design
Swimming pools are of two types i.e. the in-ground and the above-ground swimming pools. There are numerous ways in which these pools can be designed. An important point to remember while designing a pool, is that the design should reflect the owner’s personality and taste. It should also take into consideration the budget of the owner and the location of the pool.

Software for Designing Swimming Pool
The software available in the market provide various features to customize the appearance and the structure of the swimming pool. Many of these software enable the user to have a 3D view of the pool designs. The price one pays for swimming pool software is worth the returns obtained. This is because today’s software are not only easy to use, but also provide amazing 3D angles and incredible design clarity.

Landscaping Options
It is possible to add various landscape features in the designs of pools with the help of software. Lawn chairs and flower bushes can also be incorporated in the swimming pool design to enhance its appearance. These objects could be rotated and scaled according to the designers needs.

Easy to Use
Most of today’s software developed for designing are user-friendly. These are easy to use and can be learned quickly. There is no need of prior experience or technical knowledge in order to design pools using these software.

Realistic Designs
The designs created with the help of these software appear realistic and can be used to depict the natural terrain effectively. Rolling hills, multiple slopes and elevations, can be accurately created with the help of the software. It is also possible to add natural colors and textures with the help of a swimming pool design software.

Templates and Other Options
The software provides the user with many powerful tools and template libraries that help in the preparation of layouts and professional plans. For the professional construction of the design, one needs to set the scale, provide the necessary dimensions and add 3D pictures.

Natural Light
The view of the pool design can be changed according to the time of the day. The 3D view of the pool in moonlight or daylight, gives the presentation a dramatic look. This feature allows the customized positioning of the sun or moon in the design to give the customer an amazing experience.

Pool Template Libraries
The template libraries allow designers to choose ready-made templates of pool designs. A customized design of a pool that one creates, can be stored in the software’s library.

Detailing and View
Software provide the customers with views of the pool from different angles and enable the designer to upgrade the design with changes suggested by them. The designs created using software also provide the user with numerous details of the design.

Rock Waterfalls and Beach Entry
The software allows designers to use ‘rock pieces’ and ‘water features’ to make the swimming pool design interesting and realistic in appearance. Features like wet bars, beach entries and tanning ledges can be added to the design with the help of software.

The above mentioned features provided by swimming pool design software make the activity of pool designing interesting and much easier for the designer. Such software thus, prove to be a great tool for swimming pool designers.

Swimming Pool Design Software

Designing a swimming pool with the help of a software is easy and it enables the user to customize the type of swimming pool desired. There are few software available in the market that provide the user with different tools to design a swimming pool.

Swimming Pool Design
Swimming pools are of two types i.e. the in-ground and the above-ground swimming pools. There are numerous ways in which these pools can be designed. An important point to remember while designing a pool, is that the design should reflect the owner’s personality and taste. It should also take into consideration the budget of the owner and the location of the pool.

Software for Designing Swimming Pool
The software available in the market provide various features to customize the appearance and the structure of the swimming pool. Many of these software enable the user to have a 3D view of the pool designs. The price one pays for swimming pool software is worth the returns obtained. This is because today’s software are not only easy to use, but also provide amazing 3D angles and incredible design clarity.

Landscaping Options
It is possible to add various landscape features in the designs of pools with the help of software. Lawn chairs and flower bushes can also be incorporated in the swimming pool design to enhance its appearance. These objects could be rotated and scaled according to the designers needs.

Easy to Use
Most of today’s software developed for designing are user-friendly. These are easy to use and can be learned quickly. There is no need of prior experience or technical knowledge in order to design pools using these software.

Realistic Designs
The designs created with the help of these software appear realistic and can be used to depict the natural terrain effectively. Rolling hills, multiple slopes and elevations, can be accurately created with the help of the software. It is also possible to add natural colors and textures with the help of a swimming pool design software.

Templates and Other Options
The software provides the user with many powerful tools and template libraries that help in the preparation of layouts and professional plans. For the professional construction of the design, one needs to set the scale, provide the necessary dimensions and add 3D pictures.

Natural Light
The view of the pool design can be changed according to the time of the day. The 3D view of the pool in moonlight or daylight, gives the presentation a dramatic look. This feature allows the customized positioning of the sun or moon in the design to give the customer an amazing experience.

Pool Template Libraries
The template libraries allow designers to choose ready-made templates of pool designs. A customized design of a pool that one creates, can be stored in the software’s library.

Detailing and View
Software provide the customers with views of the pool from different angles and enable the designer to upgrade the design with changes suggested by them. The designs created using software also provide the user with numerous details of the design.

Rock Waterfalls and Beach Entry
The software allows designers to use ‘rock pieces’ and ‘water features’ to make the swimming pool design interesting and realistic in appearance. Features like wet bars, beach entries and tanning ledges can be added to the design with the help of software.

The above mentioned features provided by swimming pool design software make the activity of pool designing interesting and much easier for the designer. Such software thus, prove to be a great tool for swimming pool designers.