Urban Sprawl and Development

The fringes of urban centers have been eating up neighboring rural land, and causing a radical transformation in the management of a metropolitan area, or a big industrialized city. Initially, it was considered a healthy sign of development. Urban sprawl, in simple terms, comprises heavy migration of a population, land use, increased transportation along with economic and social development. These sparsely populated areas have become a regular feature of city development across the globe and also a big headache in most of the cases.

They do offer an attractive pattern of development. For example, in America the growth of an urban sprawl was associated with the fulfillment of the ‘Great American Dream’ where people dreamed of living in single-family homes with all the modern amenities. All this was coupled with an easy access to the vibrant and bustling local business districts and professional avenues. A thriving population is the biggest contributor to a country’s growth. Better living conditions influenced a large part of the civic life to develop and assimilate the benefits of modern life. But there have been several grave consequences of this trend in the human development. They are as follows:
Economic Problems: Modern colonies include a

Our Society: Technology and Instant Gratification

“I hate traffic.”, “What is the hold up, here?”, “I just cannot wait.”, “Don’t put me on hold!”, etc. Do any of these seem familiar to you? No one likes to wait these days. No matter what it is that they have to wait for, it seems that people just can’t wait. As the human race, we are always looking to better ourselves, to make things easier and faster so that we eventually have to do less on our own. Over the past years, we have developed several new ways to travel, communicate, and entertain ourselves. It is both, a fantastic and terrible thing, that technology has brought us such conveniences.

What is so wrong with technology?
We have become a lazy society. We don’t have to cook, because we can grab food from a restaurant, or better yet, have it delivered. If not, we can always heat up a frozen meal in the microwave. Some people use their cars to travel a distance of two blocks so that they don’t have to walk. The television is often the babysitter. There are too many people who can’t cook, don’t get any exercise, and don’t spare time to teach and

How Does the Internet Work

When posed with such a question, most of us think that we own a computer, we have a telephone line or a satellite TV cable, and a modem; that’s all there is to know about how the Internet works. But, this answer sums up only a small percentage of the whole story.

The Working of Internet

Working of the Internet is based on a series of protocols. A protocol is a set of rules or a kind of agreement, wherein two parties agree to abide by a set of rules. In this case, these rules govern the transmission and reception of data, to and from a computer.

To know how protocols work, it’s important to understand the protocol layers. The network is firstly divided into various layers and protocols that are set for each of these layers. Let’s see what the protocols are, according to layers:

Application Layer Protocol
The application layer acts as the interface between the user and the system. This layer has application-specific protocols like hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP), e-mail, chatting, or file transfer protocol (FTP) for downloading, etc., which communicates with the subsequent TCP layer.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Layer

Things to do on the Internet

The Internet is used for innumerable purposes, such as surfing for the required information, chatting, sending emails, payment of bills, ticket booking and many more. Due to its uses, the Internet has become very popular since its launch. We can get the desired information by using the famous search engines, like the Yahoo and Google search engines, in very less time. Apart from these two, there are other search engines that are popular in the various parts of the world. The number of website owners has increased by millions over the years, due to increasing number of activities on the Internet. Let us discuss the fun stuff to do online when bored, in detail in the following paragraphs.

Surfing For Information and Images

You can get detailed information on a variety of topics by going through the number of concerned websites on the Internet. Some of the categories in which the information available can be classified in, are education and higher learning, health, entertainment, politics, national and international news and finance related information. This information is used by people from varied backgrounds and professions. Surfing helps us update our knowledge and keeps us informed about the things happening around us.

Software Development Life Cycle

Software development life cycle is a step-by-step process involved in the development of a software product. It is also denoted as software development process in certain parts of the world. The whole process is generally classified into a set of steps and a specific operation will be carried out in each of the steps.


The basic classification of the whole process is as follows :
– Planning
– Analysis
– Design
– Development
– Implementation
– Testing
– Deployment
– Maintenance
Each of the steps of the process has its own importance and plays a significant part. The description of each of the steps can give a better understanding.


This is the first and foremost stage in the development and one of the most important stages. The basic motive is to plan the total project and to estimate the merits and demerits of the project. The planning phase includes the definition of the intended system, development of the project plan, and parallel management of the plan throughout the proceedings.

A good and matured plan can create a very good initiative and can positively affect the complete project.


The main aim of the analysis phase is to perform statistics and requirements gathering. Based on the

Reverse Engineering for Software Debugging

Reverse engineering in computer programming is a skill by which software can be reverted to its basic form, through a series of steps. The software is taken back to its source code level. Pretty often, software are not totally brought down to the source code level or simply cannot, but they are brought down till the assembly language level. Assembly language is a CPU understandable language which is different for different CPU architectures.

Assembly language has certain instructions known as assembly codes which define the flow of a program, the program structure, functions, etc. Everything that the software is capable of doing can be modified or deleted using these codes. Debugging is finding bugs in our software and correcting them, as and when necessary.

Debugging is most often done at development phase, which means when the software is being coded or developed. However, at times, some bugs and errors cannot be corrected at this phase. Some of these bugs can be identified and corrected when the concerned program’s source code is small but it becomes extremely difficult to correct bugs when the code is huge and complex. Reverse engineering can help programmers build better software by eliminating bugs by just

Computer Software and Hardware Installation

In today’s day and age, computers have become a part and parcel of our lives. We can find them everywhere around us. They have a variety of significant and important applications in several different fields, including industries, agriculture, research, medicine, etc.

For most of us however, the term computer signifies the PCs that we use at our homes and offices. We use them to watch movies, listen to songs, play games, make work-related documents, etc. It is really impossible to carry on our daily lives, both at our homes and our workplaces, without computers.

Since we use computers so extensively, it is necessary that we have some understanding about at least the installation of its basic components, namely the hardware and software. This knowledge can prove to be vital, especially when we wish to upgrade our PCs.

In the very basic sense, computer software constitutes the programs that run in it, while hardware constitutes the monitor, keyboard, and all the other peripheral devices that are connected to it. Both these components are essential for the working of any computer system.

In the following sections, we give you an overview of the generic procedure for

What is an Academic Software?

he academic arena is experiencing the change worldwide. The wireless technology has enhanced the approach towards academics too and it won’t be before long that laptops totally replace textbooks and the teacher is replaced by a supercomputer. The quest remains the same ― quenching the thirst for information. The question of importance of the physical presence of the human teacher has receded into the background. Now the focus is on ‘what is imparted’, ‘how quickly’, and not ‘by whom’. The dedicated educational software programs are legally licensed programs that are easily accessible via a myriad of online and offline resources.

What is it?

Academic or educational software is identical to the commercial applications, functionally. The versatility and structure varies only in the sense of field restriction in both. While the former focuses on curriculum, the latter delves into the routine functions and operations of a business enterprise. It is designed to meet special requirements of the student and faculty community. It is not restricted to e-learning and can be applied to the adopted policies of any brick and mortar school and college too. It enables the student to optimize the availability of audio-visual content and maintain information for replication at

The Moral-Entertainment Divide

The entertainment industry is constantly under scrutiny―whether it is the sex and violence in movies, the language in music, or the focus of video games. As entertainment becomes more progressive, those who are vocal against that progression try to speak up louder to drown out the noise. For them, it is a seemingly winless battle, though as there are few if any instances in which moral disagreement has had a significant impact on the way the industry operates.


Music has long since settled into a groove in which essentially anything is okay. The result is, a music industry that does not provide nearly as much objectionable and public material as it once did. There was one point in the early 1990s, when it seemed like every day had another music artist’s name in the papers alongside that of an angry senator. While albums are still marked with the Parental Advisory stickers that were introduced in those early days of moral objection, the bounds are essentially gone.

Access to music is as free and prevalent as ever, with services like iTunes and MySpace making it nearly impossible to filter out the unwanted noise anymore, and so, for the most

Computer Illiterates―The New Lepers

We’ve all heard the jokes. The funniest seem to be about those who are computer illiterate to the nth degree, such as the woman who used her mouse like a sewing machine peddle and couldn’t figure out why the computer wouldn’t go; or when the tech asked the customer what kind of computer he had, the customer replied, “a white one.”

These are not people to be shunned. Made fun of, perhaps, but not shunned. We all have things about which we are ignorant. For example, if I were stranded in deep space and the only way home was to repair the heavily damaged Flux Capacitor Model XL960, I’d be in pretty big trouble. Luckily, that’s not likely to happen any time soon.

Many people who haven’t had the opportunity to work with computers feel inferior―or worse―stupid. That’s unfair. At parties the illiterates are forced to talk to the stone deaf grandfather or pretend to have a deep fascination for finger foods to avoid admitting their lack of knowledge or to be left out of the latest techno buzz. In order to remedy this growing social stigma, computer user wannabes need look no further than the local newspaper or phone