What is an electric car? and how it works.

Today electric vehicles (EV) have become popular among urban users and this is because these vehicles are noiseless, and do not create pollution. The first electric vehicles appeared in the 1880s, electric cars were popular in the 20th century and earlier in the 19th century until large-scale combustion engines were built for mass production and compared to gasoline electricity. was cheap.

During the 1970s and 1980s the energy crisis hit which stopped the electric vehicle in its tracks.

Fast forward to 2008 when there was a renaissance in electric vehicle manufacturing due to concerns about battery technology power, technology management and rising oil prices.

Since 2008, many governments, local authorities and countries have provided tax breaks, tax benefits and government grants to help the electric vehicle market grow and in the effort to reduce greenhouse gases and CO2 emissions.

Every day you get to see more news regarding electric cars and how they are developed, which shows that these cars are here to stay. Let us know the basics of these cars, the way they work and the benefits of electric cars.

 

What is electric car?

An electric car is a car that is powered by one or more electric motors using energy stored in a battery. Compared to internal combustion engine vehicles, electric cars are quieter, have no exhaust emissions, and have lower emissions overall.

Electric vehicles have a lower running cost as they have fewer moving parts to maintain and are also eco-friendly as they use little or no fossil fuels (petrol or diesel).
While some EVs use lead-acid or nickel-metal hydride batteries, the standard for modern battery electric vehicles is now considered lithium-ion batteries because they have a longer lifespan and are excellent at retaining energy. Huh.

 

Types of electric vehicles (EV)

There are two main types of electric vehicles (EVs): -fully electric and plug-in hybrids.

There are a few different types of electric vehicles (EVs). Some run entirely on electricity, they are called pure electric vehicles and some can also run on petrol or diesel, they are called hybrid electric vehicles.

Out of which :-

Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV)
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV)

 

Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV)

BEV that car runs entirely on electricity and gets all its power when plugged in to charge. Petrol or diesel is not required to run this type, so there is no emissions like traditional cars.

Compared to internal combustion engines, battery-powered electric vehicles have about 99% fewer moving parts that require maintenance.

The BEV can be charged at home overnight, providing enough range for an average trip. However, long trips or those that require a lot of mountain climbing can mean that the fuel cells need to be charged before reaching your destination, although regenerative braking or downhill driving can charge the battery pack. can help.

Typical charging times for an electric car can range from 30 minutes to over 12 hours. It all depends on the speed of the charging station and the size of the battery.

 

Battery electric vehicle features

  • Like other electric and hybrid-electric vehicles, BEVs reduce wasted energy by stopping the car (“idle-off”) and charging the battery while braking (“regenerative braking”). Electric motors are also inherently more energy-efficient than gasoline or diesel engines.
  • Battery electric cars have the added benefit of home recharging. Similar to clothes dryers, a 240-volt outlet can charge a vehicle overnight. Most fully charged battery-electric cars have a driving range of between 70 and 100 miles.

 

Advantages of a BEV

  • Makes very little noise.
  • No exhaust, spark plugs, clutch or gear.
  • Does not burn fossil fuels, instead uses rechargeable batteries.

 

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV)

Instead of relying solely on an electric motor, hybrid electric vehicles provide a mix of battery and petrol (or diesel) power. This makes them better for long distance travel as you can switch to conventional fuel instead of finding a charge point to top up the battery.

Of course, the same disadvantages that apply to combustion engine vehicles also apply to PHEVs, such as higher maintenance requirements, engine noise, emissions and the cost of petrol. PHEVs also have smaller battery packs, which means less range.

 

How Electric Vehicles works

EVs are like automatic cars. They have forward and reverse mode. These are accelerated when you put the vehicle in gear and press the accelerator pedal:

  • The power for the electric motor is converted from a DC battery to AC.
  • The accelerator pedal sends a signal to the controller which adjusts the speed of the vehicle by changing the frequency of the AC power from the inverter to the motor.
  • The motor engages and rotates the wheels by means of a cog.
  • When the brakes are pressed or the car is slowing down, the motor becomes an alternator and produces electricity, which is sent back to the battery.

Components of Electric Vehicles

The major components of a battery electric vehicle are:-

  • Battery
  • Charge Port
  • DC converter
  • Electric traction motor
  • Onboard charger
  • Power electronics controller
  • Thermal system(cooling)
  • Traction battery pack
  • Transmission(electric)

Battery

The battery in an electric drive vehicle provides power to the vehicle accessories.

Charge Port

The charge port allows the vehicle to be connected to an external power supply to charge the traction battery pack.

DC Converter

This device converts the high-voltage DC power from the traction battery pack into the low-voltage DC power needed to power the vehicle’s accessories and recharge the auxiliary battery.

Electric Traction Motor

Using the power of the traction battery pack, it drives the wheels of the motor vehicle. Some vehicles use motor generators that perform both drive and regeneration functions.

Onboard Charger

Takes incoming AC power, supplied through the charge port and converts it to DC power to charge the traction battery. It also communicates with the charging equipment and monitors the characteristics of the battery such as voltage, current, temperature and state of charge while charging the pack.

Power Electronics controller

This unit manages the flow of electric energy delivered by the traction battery, controls the speed of the electric traction motors and the torque it generates.

Thermal System(cooling)

This system maintains the proper operating temperature range of engines, electric motors, power electronics and other components.

Traction battery Pack

Stores electricity for use by electric traction motor.

Transmission

The transmission transfers mechanical power from the electric traction motor to drive the wheels.

 

Why are electric cars preferred?

Electric cars can be recharged with a domestic plug in the socket and are projected to save much more than gas cars.

Today many charging stations are being built in many places and there are innovative charging stations, which help you to charge the battery wirelessly, and also developed and in some places a prototype with good appreciation from electric car users. being used as.

Such innovative ideas along with cutting edge technology can make the use of electric cars possible for common people. The speed at which they can be charged varies depending on the type of battery.

The biggest plus point of electric vehicles is that it does not emit any pollutants, thus reducing the carbon footprint, and gives some back to the environment. These cars depend on batteries for power, hence the gases. There is no burning and hence no emission.

Another advantage of electric cars is that they provide or recover energy whenever you apply the brakes. I mean they generate electricity when brakes are applied and store this energy in the battery, so it makes them even more efficient in terms of energy conservation.

These electric vehicles can be used with solar panels to make them more eco-friendly by generating their own power from the sun and using less electricity generated from the electricity grid and with just one recharge these vehicles are without any hassle. Can walk long distances.

 

About Electric Cars Safety:

These cars have the same standards as gas powered cars and are heavier than gas cars. It is proven that heavy vehicles are less prone to injury, giving these cars an advantage over regular fossil fuel cars.

 

About the drawbacks of Electric Cars:

Along with the advantages, there are also some drawbacks, right now the cost of these vehicles is very high and the battery has to be changed every 3 years. But with increasing technology these shortcomings can easily be overcome in the near future.

 

Do electric cars have engines?

Electric cars have an electric motor instead of an internal combustion engine. The motor is powered by a large battery pack placed in the car, which can be recharged via a wall socket or portable charger.

Can we charge an electric car at home?

Home charging can be set up or via the EVSE supply to 3-pin plug socket provided by the car manufacturer. The home charging point is fast and has built-in safety features.

Do electric cars work in mountainous areas?

An electric vehicle has separate motors for each wheel or each pair of wheels and generates instantaneous more torque than an ICE. It can climb hills easily.

What is the future of electric cars?

Electric cars are the most viable replacement for combustion engines. Over the next few years, EVs will become a more affordable option than petrol and diesel vehicles due to a significant reduction in battery costs.

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